Saturday, March 14, 2020

Critical Review of a Paper Investigating the Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy The WritePass Journal

Critical Review of a Paper Investigating the Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy Introduction Critical Review of a Paper Investigating the Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy ) into the application of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB, Ajzen, 1988, 1991) and its effectiveness in predicting intention to carry out health related behaviours. The TPB is a social cognition model, meaning that it seeks to predict intention to carry out a behaviour and to understand why individuals may fail to adhere to a behaviour to which they were once committed. The theory claims that three variables can be used to predict an individual’s behaviour: the individual’s attitude toward the behaviour, the attitude of significant others toward the behaviour and the individual’s perceived control over a behaviour. Perceived control over behaviour is governed by both internal factors such as an individual’s skills or available resources, and external factors such as actual opportunities to carry out the behaviour. Unlike the individual’s attitude toward the behaviour and the attitude of others, perceived control over the behaviour is believed to i nfluence both the intention to carry out the behaviour and the behaviour itself. In particular, the authors were investigating whether the TPB could be used to predict intention to consume alcohol during pregnancy. Previous research has found the TPB to be useful for predicting a range of other health related behaviours (Godin and Kok, 1996) and alcohol consumption behaviours in particular (Marcoux Shope, 1997; McMillan Conner, 2003). The authors focused on the role of TPB in being able to predict the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Drinking during pregnancy is a major health issue. It has been found to influence a number of outcomes for the child including maladaptive behaviours (Sood et al., 2001) and weight at birth (Mariscal et al., 2006). Despite its relation to negative outcomes for the child, up to 54% of women in the UK have claimed to have consumed alcohol during their pregnancy (Bolling et al., 2007). Study Description 130 women based in the Aberdeenshire area returned a questionnaire that was distributed to them at their 20-week pregnancy scan. Of these, analysis was carried out on 116 women. The questionnaire included questions designed to gather information on demographic details, past and present alcohol consumption, and TPB variables. The TPB variables included measuring the participants’ intention to engage in the behaviour, their attitude toward the behaviour, their beliefs about the subjective norm and their perceived behavioural control. The study found that the majority of participants made changes to their drinking behaviour once they found out that they were pregnant, with these changes taking the form of a reduction in alcohol consumption. 64.7% abstained from alcohol altogether during their pregnancy, 34.5% continued to drink to some level and 0.9% did not answer. Of those women who continued to drink during their pregnancy, 13.4% were drinking above the recommended maximum lev els whereas the rest were drinking one to two units between two and four times per month. It was also found that although most participants received information about drinking during their pregnancy, 12.9% received no information. In relation to the TPB theory, it was found that women who abstained from drinking after finding out they were pregnant had significantly higher scores on the intention scale, suggesting that they had a significantly greater intention to quit alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Abstaining participants also had significantly higher scores on the subjective norm scale, indicating that they felt more pressure from what others thought about drinking during pregnancy. Abstainers were also found to have significantly lower scores on the attitude scale, suggesting a much less positive attitude toward the behaviour of drinking during pregnancy. In contrast,, the scale that measured perceived behaviour control did not show any significant differences between those women who abstained and those who continued to drink during their pregnancy. Attitude toward the behaviour and the influence of what others thought of the behaviour were found to be strongly and significantly correlated with intention to carry out the behaviour of abstaining from alcohol during pregnancy. TPB was able to explain 59.3% of variance in intention to drink during pregnancy. Furthermore, the theory was able to correctly classify 91.8% of cases and as a result, was statistically able to distinguish between drinkers and abstainers. The authors concluded that as attitude was found to have the greatest statistically significant contribution to predicting intention and to contribute significantly to predicting actual behaviour, it would be an ideal candidate for intervention focus. As perceived behaviour control was the only TPB component found not to contribute, the authors suggest that the model without this component would be appropriate for predicting intention to consume alcohol during pregnancy. Critical Review The reviewed article addressed an important health issue, namely investigating how drinking alcohol during pregnancy could be reduced by understanding what drives or stops women from having the intention to carry out this behaviour. The finding that attitude toward drinking whilst pregnant has a significant impact on both intention to drink during pregnancy and actual drinking during pregnancy could have wider clinical and educational applications. Nevertheless, the authors are vague in how their findings could be applied in the real world and fail to make useful suggestions based on their data. The finding that some women were not provided with information pertaining to the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is also an important one because it highlights that some health trusts are failing to help women make informed decisions about this subject. However, it is not touched upon in the discussion. The study’s introduction is a little weak in that it does not make an overly convincing argument as to why their chosen topic is important and worth investigating. It makes only a brief reference to the negative impact that alcohol consumption can have on both mother and baby, and the literature to which it refers is quite outdated. This suggests that a thorough and recent literature review may not have been carried out. Furthermore, the study could present a much stronger argument as to why the TPB may be applicable to this health behaviour in particular. There is some justification in that the authors of the paper chose this particular theory on the premise that a socially-based theory such as TPB could highlight risk factors for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy that could be more easily influenced than previous risk factors that have been identified such as drinking habits before pregnancy and socioeconomic status (Stewart Streiner, 1994; Yamamoto et al., 2008). Risk factors such as these cannot be easily changed. In contrast, risk factors based on attitudes toward a behaviour can be more easily altered through education or government interventions. The discussion does not flow particularly well and the overall conclusions of the study are not entirely clear. An advantage of the TPB is its holistic approach. It attempts to understand the behaviour of an individual in the context of both an individual’s attitude toward a behaviour, their perceived control over that behaviour and how they perceive others to judge the behaviour. However, our intentions to carry out a behaviour or not are the result of an incredibly complex process during which many variables are taken into account. Although the limitations of the study’s methodology are touched upon in the discussion, the authors fail to explore the limitations of the TPB and how these may affect their findings. For example, McKeown (1979) argued that negative health behaviours are determined on the individual level by the choices we make to behave in a certain way. Therefore, the theory may place too much emphasis on the importance of what others think of a behaviour. Indeed, in the current study, individual attitudes toward a behaviour were found to be more influential than subjective norms. One criticism of this study is its potential lack of representativeness, both culturally and geographically. Ethnic minorities made up only 6.9% of the sample, meaning that the results may not be generalisable to ethnic minorities. Furthermore, the sample was collected from only one geographic area, although the authors argue that their findings are in keeping with previous studies that used samples from a much wider geographical area (Anderson et al., 2007; Bolling et al., 2007). There may also have been a bias in the way in which participants were recruited. Women were approached by the researchers whilst awaiting their 20 week antenatal scans in hospital. The scans are designed to screen for any anomalies in the baby and to check that development is normal. These scans are not compulsory, potentially creating a bias in the sample. For example, Alderdice et al. (2007) found that women without qualifications or women from areas of high deprivation were significantly less likely to u ptake an offer of a 20 week screen for Downs Syndrome than women from affluent areas or women with degree-level qualification. This suggests that the women who were approached by the researchers in the current study may have been under-representative of women from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Furthermore, the study does not provide detail on the demographic information of the women who responded to the questionnaire, which would have been useful in evaluating generalisability. The measure used to ascertain TPB variables was developed using guidelines for the development of questionnaires designed to measure TPB behaviours (Francis et al., 2004). However, the measurement used was not a validated questionnaire. Furthermore, the authors do not provide examples of how they measured the three variables of intention, subjective norm and perceived behaviour control. This means that the measure cannot be opened up for scrutiny or re-used in later studies to assess its validity and reliability. Before the main study, a small pilot study was carried out with seven pregnant women to ensure that the questionnaire was easy to understand. Pilot studies are essential for establishing a sound study design (van Teijilngen Hundley, 2001). Although, it should be noted that the authors did not report the results of any reliability or validity tests. As part of the test battery, the study did use the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a reliable and valid measure for gathering information on alcohol consumption that was developed by the World Health Organisation (Saunders et al., 1993, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, 2004). This measurement has been reported to be superior to other measures designed to collect data on the same subject (Reinert Allen, 2002). Self-report measures in themselves have a number of limitations. Firstly, they are subject to social desirability bias. Social desirability bias acknowledges that participants may report carrying out behaviours that are socially desirable or may cover up being involved in behaviours that are frowned on. Based on the finding that subjective norms had a significant impact on both intention and behaviour, social desirability bias may have affected the results of this study. If participants were so influenced by what others thought of alcohol consumption during pregnancy, then they may have been likely to cover up occasions on which they did drink during their pregnancy. This means that the number of participants who did drink during pregnancy may have been higher than the study reported. Recommendations for Improvement and Future Research If this study is to be replicated, it could be improved in a number of ways. Firstly, ethnic minorities must be better represented. Great Britain is now a multi-cultural country and research must reflect this. The authors must provide more information or a copy of the questionnaire designed to measure TPB variables so that reliability and validity can be assessed. A useful future study would be to assess the impact of an intervention designed to change the attitude of women who do not perceive drinking alcohol during pregnancy to be an issue. As attitude was found to be the most important factor in intention to carry out this behaviour, the currently reviewed study would be strengthened if an intervention based around attitude was found to change behaviour. References Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211. Alderdice, F., McNeill, J., Rowe, R., Martin, D. Dornan, J. (2008). Inequalities in the reported offer and uptake of antenatal screening. Public Health, 122(1), 42-52. Anderson, S., Bradshaw, P., Cunningham-Burley, S., Hayes, F. Jamieson, L., MacGregor, A. et al. (2007). Growing up in Scotland: A study following the lives of Scotland’s children. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Executive. Bolling, K., Grant, C., Hamlyn, B. Thornton, A. (2007). Infant Feeding Survey, 2005. Leeds, UK: The Information Centre. Duncan, E.M., Forbes-McKay, K.E. Henderson, S.E. (2012). Alcohol use during pregnancy: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(8), 1887-1903. Francis, J.J., Eccles, M.P., Johnstone, M., Walker, A., Grimshaw, J., Foy, R. et al. (2004). Constructing questionnaires based on the theory of planned behaviour: A manual for health service researchers. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK: Centre for Health Services Research. Godin, G. Kok, G. (1996). The theory of planned behaviour: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 87-98. Marcoux, B.C. Shope, J.T. (1997). Application of the theory of planned behaviour to adolescent use and misuse of alcohol. Health Education Research, 12, 323-331. Mariscal, M., Palma, S., Llorca, J., Perez-Iglesias, R., Pardo-Crespo, R. Delgado-Rodriguez, M. (2006). Pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and risk for low birth weight. Annals of Epidemiology, 16, 432-438. McKeown, T. (1979). The role of medicine. Dream, mirage or nemesis? Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publisher Ltd. McMillan, B. Conner, M. (2003). Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand alcohol and tobacco use in students. Psychology, Health, and Medicine, 8, 317-328. Reinert, D. Allen, J.P. (2002). The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): A review of recent research. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26(2), 272-279. Saunders, J.B., Aasland, O.G., Babor, T.F., de la Fuente, J.R. Grant, M. (1993). Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption. Addiction, 88, 791-804. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. (2004). The management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence in primary care: A national clinical guideline. Edinburgh, Scotland: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Sood, B., Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Ager, J., Templin, T., et al. (2001). Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood behaviour at age 6 to 7 years: I. Does- response effect. Pediatrics, 108(2), 34-43. Steward, D.E. Streiner, D. (1994). Alcohol drinking in pregnancy. General Hospital Psychiatry, 16, 406-412. van Teijilngen, E. Hundley, V. (2001). The importance of pilot studies. Social Research Update, 35, 1-4. Yamamoto, Y., Kanieta, Y., Yokoyama, E., Sone, T., Takemura, S., Suzuki, K. et al. (2008). Alcohol consumption and abstention among pregnant Japanese women. Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 173-182.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - Essay Example Protein is essential for growth and development. These are necessary for synthesis of hormones, antibodies, enzymes, and tissues. When protein is consumed, the body breaks it into amino acids, and some amino acids are not synthesized within the body. As a result, diet rich in those amino acids is needed to be consumed for a balanced nutrition. Therefore, it is essential that along with carbohydrates, the person should take protein and amino acids in the diet. Cilia are important in mechanical removal of the bacteria from the upper respiratory tract. These treat the deposited bacteria by beating movements outwards, so the bacteria cannot enter the lower respiratory tract. However, with smoking the ciliary function is compromised rendering the lower respiratory tract vulnerable to the deposited bacteria resulting in increased infections. Carcinogens mostly influence very rapid division of already rapidly dividing cells in tissues. As a result rapidly dividing tissues in gastrointestinal tract, blood and bone marrow, respiratory tract, and integumentary system are prone to have cancers. Whereas, less rapidly dividing cells in tissues like nerves are less likely to have malignant diseases. A loss of 50% of a person’s functional skin surface would lead to a gross exposure of the underlying tissues to the environment leading to excessive dehydration due to fluid loss from evaporation and exposure of the underlying tissues to the risk of infection due to loss of barrier. Nursing the person in an environment with air-cooled laminar air flow system reduces this evaporation, hence fluid loss, although these patients must be nursed in a sterile environment with adequate fluid resuscitation and antibiotic coverage. Osteoporosis is a disease of calcium depletion from bones rendering then weak and fragile. The calcium metabolism in case of females is dependent on estrogen receptors on

Monday, February 10, 2020

Affordable Healthcare Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Affordable Healthcare Act - Essay Example Before elucidating the likely impact, it is of importance to define the words quality, access, and cost in relation to healthcare. A number of aspects are considered when defining quality of healthcare. Quality means that optimum outcomes are achieved, proper identification of illnesses is done, sufficient treatment and rehabilitation achieved, cases documented properly, and laid down standards and values are respected (Miles, 2012). Access to healthcare on the other hand denotes the ease of use and convenience to healthcare facilities or institutions in regard to their propinquity. Access to some extent also is viewed in consideration to the number of healthcare providers or physicians available in a specific area. Areas with fewer health professionals are considered to have less access to care while those with more physicians or health professionals are considered more accessible in terms of care (Miles, 2012). Subsequently, cost of care is viewed in a number of ways. In political realms, cost of healthcare is defined in terms of national as well as State expenditures in health matters. Health care providers define cost in terms of expenditure incurred through offering care services to individuals. In relation to commerce, cost of healthcare is viewed in terms of rates of insurance and premiums (Miles, 2012). Healthcare quality, access, and cost is affected by political issues in a country and the kind of action plans implemented to reform the health sector. In the U.S. in particular, the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), otherwise known as the Obamacare has impacted the health sector immensely. In fact, there was much opposition to the implementation of this act though the Supreme court eventually ruled in the year 2012 that all features of the act were legal. There was a feeling among many individuals that the fact that the act requires all Americans to enroll for healthcare plans lest

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Marked or Unmarked Essay Example for Free

Marked or Unmarked Essay Marked or Unmarked status for both men and women still remains to be an indirect type of cultural norm practiced by different societies. This type of connotation often is a manifestation of collective practices, actions, and norms promoted by a certain society. This is one of the facets that separate us from every other specie in the world – our ability to create meanings out of something. With this, one can clearly just say that there could be no such thing as an unmarked woman. But, for it to hold ground there must be sufficient explanations and arguments that would justify the particular claim. It is thus important for an elaboration the difficulty of creating an unmarked woman. The first important thing is to establish the real meaning of the concept. One can see that the real debate concerns again the inequality of achieving a marked or unmarked status between male and female. Tannen argues in the article that marked â€Å"refers to the way language alters the base meaning of a word by adding a linguistic particle that has no meaning on its own† (p. 1). On one hand we see again the way man has created meaning over symbols to the extent of even creating one over nothingness. This argument goes to show that only men are subject to be unmarked. Tannen mentions that â€Å"the unmarked forms of most English words also convey male† (p. 1). Seeing such definition, there is a sexual distinction to people who are unmarked (male) and those who are â€Å"marked† (female). Though there seems to be no problem with such sexual distinction, problems often arises when different interpretations go into the picture. Tannen points out several important characteristics on as to why such distinctions became so eminent among women. The tendency of women to be criticized for their every action subjects them to the notion that they are indeed marked. Tannen elaborates this claim by pursuing the way people perceive women’s hairstyle. According to (Tannen) â€Å"the range of women’s hair styles are staggering, but women whose hair has no particular style is perceived as not caring about how she looks, which can disqualify her for many positions, and will subtly diminish her as a person in the eyes of some† (p. 1). Such example only proves one thing for women; it is indeed difficult for women to be unmarked since the continuous knots are in place for marked perceptions, actions, and ideas. It is like a continued cycle of being ‘marked’ and curtailed with only several moves that will also still connote the same thing – being ‘marked’. This is one argument as to why women cannot be considered or classified as unmarked. However, thinkers who see such scenario often attest and complain about the particular setup of things. Though it may be wrong to associate them to feminist, but somehow these people are often pointed toward such orientation due to its overall principle – equality for both men and women. It is through this that several people sought to argue that ‘unmarking’ of women in society is possible. The article points out several scholars who argue how men have and society continued to tolerate such status of women. Tannen stresses in her article that â€Å"language and culture are particularly unfair in treating women as the marked case because biologically it is the male that is marked† (p. 1) He cited several works of Fasold who advocated an alternative approach in explaining that indeed men are the ones who are ‘marked’ contrary to the original notion. One example cited by Tannen in Fasold’s study includes the notion concerning genetics and says that biologically males are the ones that are really ‘marked’. Tannen says that â€Å"while two X chromosomes make a female, two Y chromosomes make nothing. Like the linguistic markers s, es or ess, the Y chromosome doesnt mean anything unless it is attached to a root form an X chromosome† (p. 1) Pursuing Fasold’s ideas further, he again pointed several important reasons as to why women should not be considered ‘marked’. Tannen stipulated that â€Å"Fasold points out that girls are born with fully female bodies, while boys are born with modified female bodies. † (p. 1) Lastly, Fasold points out his argument by making establishing a possible relationship with biology and language. Tannen points out that â€Å"if language reflected biology, grammar books would direct us to use she to include males and females and he only for specifically male referents. † (p. 1) Arguing on this matter, Tannen clearly dismisses the claim of Fasold’s due to his inability to strike a relationship between his study in biological makeup of man and man’s sociological makeup. Yes, it can be argued that Fasold’s argument may hold water, however there is a huge differences in perspective on how to view the issue. Biological makeup/component for that matter is more standardized with a definitive value for everything. However, with regards to sociology and gender, there is a diverse and multiple levels of interpretations that can be made to ascertain an occurrence of something. Establishing such difference, Tannen contends with the argument of Fasold’s by focusing that the parameters of biology differ in scope compared to language particularly in the realm of using the term ‘he’ or ‘she’. Tannen points out that â€Å"use of he as the sex-indefinite pronoun is an innovation introduced into English by grammarians in the 18th and 19th centuries, according to Peter Muhlhausler and Rom Harre in Pronouns and People† (p. 1) By establishing such argument, it was mentioned that the ‘she’ word again is marked. It is through this that the argument pertaining to women can be unmarked remains to be bleak and difficult to achieve. However, I am not saying that it is unattainable, but it will take a radical effort for women to achieve such status. Even the author attests the difficulty. If ever you fight for something that will challenge the status quo, labeling shall be given to you – feminist, male basher, etc. This in turn again promotes the process of being ‘marked’ for women. In the end, after careful analysis of arguments, it can be justified that there are no unmarked women. Women may strive for such status, however such endeavor may only be futile since even the author of the article attested its relative difficulty and grasp among females. Tannen said that â€Å"I felt sad to think that we women didnt have the freedom to be unmarked that the men sitting next to us had. † (p. 1) In the end, the only scenario is accepting the fact that women shall be subject to being ‘marked’. The only thing that they can do is create an environment where their ‘mark’ is more on the positive side compared to a degenerative idea. Work Cited Tannen, Deborah. Marked Women, Unmarked Men in The New York Times Magazine 1993 accessed 14 April 2008

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Essay --

During the Renaissance period, many great ideas and inventions emerged from the minds of some of the world’s most genius people. On April 15th, 1452, Piero da Vinci and a peasant woman, Caterina, were blessed with a child. They named him Leonardo da Vinci; little did they know he would grow up to be a painter, sculptor, architect, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and a writer. Da Vinci is known as a man of â€Å"unquenchable curiosity† and â€Å"feverishly inventive imagination.† Leonardo da Vinci is most known for his paintings and his inventions in flight, many of which are still being used today. Leonardo da Vinci left behind multiple notebooks with sketches and detailed lay outs of his inventions. In these notebooks, people have found many inventions involving flight. The three main flight inventions are the glider, the helicopter, and the parachute. Without Leonardo’s ideas on flight, it would still be hard for us to get people into the air today. In da Vinci’s notebook labeled Codice Atlantico (Codex Atlanticus), the very first helicopt...

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Write Your Course Title

The American Revolution is one of the most important eras in American history. It was the period that fashioned the American society and influenced the making of the constitution in readiness for the conceived independence. It refers broadly to the war fought by the 13 American states against his majesties army in a bid not only to reject the influence of the English parliament over American land but also to severe all forms of allegiance to Britain.There were many factors that led to the war yet it was clear that such recourse was inevitable due to the growing American society and the difference in ideologies between the leadership in American and that in Britain. One of the main issues that led to the war and consequent declaration of independence is the British imposition of higher taxes over the American Brits as passed by British parliament. Americans felt that since they did not have any representation within that parliament, then such a move was unconstitutional.The British ne eded to raise money and therefore decided that colonies must pay more as a cost of their upkeep by the British Empire. The American leadership tried to have those decisions lifted by appealing to the king since although hey did not recognize parliament authority over them, they still felt that they owed their allegiance to the king. However, the king did not intervene but instead called them rebellious and declared war on the.Another reason is the fact that the British Empire had made legislations restricting trade thus leading British traders to benefit more form trade than their American counter parts a move that was greatly resented. This in turn slowed growth in America and led to its leadership agreeing that a drastic measure was important to redress this situation. Another factor that led to the revolution was a shift in ideologies influenced by thinkers like Locke whose ideologies in liberalism led to the growth of a republican mood and a strong distaste to values that oppres sed some while benefiting others.Furthermore, most felt that Britain was corrupt and unfair which fuelled a need to break away in order to establish a state that recognized certain rights of the people to decide the direction their country took. These and many more factors, including the Boston massacre led congress to declare America’s independence from British rule and thereby starting the American revolutionary wars. The war was won by the Americans with the help from the French armies and navy and later more help from Spain and the Netherlands (Cohen, 2004).Andrew Jackson’s popular brand of politics was a distinct break from the previous administrations. Why was it different? What was his legacy for both good and bad? Support your answer with specific examples. Andrew Jackson was the 7th president of the United States of America and the last to have been a captive of war. He has a rich history which together combined to make him one of the most important men in the American history. He was known for being a tough man both as an administrator and as an army commander.He was born third born of a family of Irish immigrants and was born in South Carolina. His birth of an immigrant family is simply another testament to the great opportunity that America is since it offers people, from all background the chance to realize their dreams; no matter how ambitious they might be. Jackson’s military carrier started when he was fourteen when he joined the army as a courier which saw him captured by the British and consequently lost his brother as a result of that imprisonment.He later went on to distinguish himself as a military commander rising to the rank of major general due to his heroic act in the Battle of New Orleans defending the country against British attack. It is clear from observing Jackson’s history that he was a very determined man and his endeavors earned him popularity among the people. In the 1824 elections he lost to Adams although he had won the popular vote but congress chose the former since the Electoral College could not decide on one man to lead the nation.This election might have called in question the prudence of an electoral system of elections that runs against the feelings and decisions of the majority and that installs a leader voted for by the minority. Such a move might be seen to be contrary to the fundamental pillars of democracy that America so holds dear and might even run contrary to the provisions of the constitution that guarantees certain rights to individuals. This is because the decisions of the majority should reflect the greater good and to have such a decisions quashed by a small group of citizens is simply not right.Traditional democrats including Jefferson differed greatly with jack son on several fronts. They opposed increased federal strength fearing that it might lead to a centralization of power by the federal government. They also opposed plans for the formation of a central bank to offer regulations to all other banks and in doing so preferred that states retain most powers over their affairs. They also opposed plans to have a large national army and navy. They also favored low tariffs probably one of the areas that Jackson concurred with an opinion greatly opposed by the federalists.Jackson found the Democratic party after he broke off from the one led by Adams after he lost the election to Adam. Unlike his former allies, he favored a strong army probably because he had a good military carrier. However, his controversial life was because of his support for slavery and the Indian removal which is a contradictory to the bills of right and the American constitution. It is curious to note that as president he would be expected to defend the constitution yet he had shown his oppositions against such fundamental issues raised by the very constitution he would be expected to uphold.Nonetheless, the splinter Democratic Party he helped to make would co me to dominate American politics for many decades to follow a trend that continues even to today (Ward, 1962). During the first half of the 19th century, America became increasingly industrialized. It is important to understand what the industrial revolution was in order to relate it to how it affected the American society in the early 19th century. The industrial revolution first started in Britain in the 18-20th century and there were great changes in the area of agriculture, transport, industry and manufacturing and in the transport sector.These changes were experienced in other parts of the world including America and they changed society completely. The initial stages of the revolution saw an end to manual and animal labor and an adoption of machines in farming and in other sectors. The pioneering industries included textile, transport and the mining and development of metal including iron. The industrial revolution in America set the country on a course to become the greatest economic power in the face of the planet with wealth and industries unmatched by none.There are many factors attributed to America’s rapid industrialization among them being presence of capital, vast resources that could be used in industries and the presence of fast and reliable transport system to aid in trade. Before the 18th century American relied on primitive agricultural methods for it’s agricultural out put. However, the revolution changed all this and great technological advancement led to better and innovative methods to farm lands and more advance machines to be used in the production of various outputs.This led to the growth of other sectors, creation of employment and an increase in the per capita income of the people fuelling growth in all sectors. There are many factors that are credited with accelerating the pace of industrialization in American during this period. Firstly, there was not adequate labor to work in the utilizations of the vast resources f ound in American pushing efforts to create machinery that would make work effective and easier. Secondly, America was endowed with many rivers that could be used to transport products and also as sites for building mills and many other industries.Other inventions that accelerated industrialization included the steam engine that made transportation faster and the cotton gin that brought huge profits to plantation owners. Another factor that helped greatly to increase trade in this period was the building of roads and canals to improve transport within the country especially to those states that were landlocked. The invention of the steam engine was used to manufacture steam boats that revolutionized travel.Furthermore, steam engines were used on trains which saw the building of a rail way line that connected various parts of the country easing movement of people and goods. The invention of thee telephone and telegraph would also prove to be a major factor contributing greatly to the development of service sectors like banks. Lastly the presence of oil in the country was a contributing factor since oil provided useful products in the homes for lighting and in industries for lubricating machines. It would later become even more useful with the invention of the combustion engine.The industrial revolution not only saw many Americans acquire land but also improved the way they farmed increasing their output greatly. This is because they stopped relying on manual labor and used machinery that helped them keep the soil fertile while reducing the cost of production. Industries provided jobs for people and led to growth of urban centers whereby companies were based and suburbs were people lived. The great technological developments continued in many sectors including arms which saw an improvement in the status of the army (Hudson, 1992).The causes of the Civil War are many and complex There are many causes of the American civil war but three reasons stand out as the maj or causes. The American civil war was fought during the period 1861-1865 and was caused by the secession of the southern Sates for the union. It pitted Jefferson Davies commanding the confederate forces against the union forces under the guidance of the president Lincoln. The first reason is the issue of slavery since many differed on the issue depending on which part of the country one came from.Most northerners were against slavery since they claimed that it went against the constitution that identified that all men are born equal and all had certain rights guaranteed them by the constitution. They therefore could not understand how people calling themselves Americans and subject to the same constitution could own other people and thereby contradict the constitution in such a blatant manner. In this regard they were agitating for an end to slavery a motion that was not well received in the south.The southern economy was dependent on agriculture and Southerners felt that they neede d slaves to work on their large plantations. The election of Abraham Lincoln as president was the last straw for the southerners since they saw it as a clear move of bad things to come since Lincoln was one of the staunch supporters of the motion to abolish slavery. Lincoln and congress however tried to avert the problem by not formulating immediately a law ending slavery but instead drafted one stopping the spread of it.Southerners felt that if the growth of slavery was stopped hen slavery would die slowly and the effect would still be the same. Furthermore, Northerners gave States powers to hold referendum whereby citizens chose whether those states should keep slaves or not. Another factor that caused the civil war is the economic differences between the South and the north and the various legislations passed by Northern legislators to benefit them in the expense of Southerners. The North depended more on industries and service industry while the South depended largely on agricul ture especially in cotton.This largely meant that need for labor in the form of slaves was increasing and this in turn polarized the two sides of the country against each other. Furthermore, most merchant ships form the south exported cotton and returned with finished products from Europe. Most of those products were similar to those made I the northern part and hence northerners felt that they should purchase from them and not import them . This led to the formulation of higher taxes on imports in order to force them to purchase them from their northern counterparts and this angered them since these products were more expensive.Another important factor that led to the civil war was the debate of whether to have a strong federal government since most in the south favored strong states with a weak federal government. They felt that they should have the power to make their own regulations and have the authority to veto federal laws that they felt were not good for their states. They a lso felt that they should have the right to secede from the union and form independent countries if their populace felt so.However, the president and the north saw this as rebellion and could therefore not grant them such a request (Catton & McPherson, 2004). These reasons led to the Confederate states launch a secession war against the north for the right to self governance. As the war progressed Lincoln freed all the slaves held by the South a move aimed at strengthening support for the union and stopping Britain from intervening in the war. The end of the war saw a great period of reconstruction that saw great involvement by federal and state governments.With the end of the war came an end to slavery and an upholding of the constitutional provision that â€Å"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. † We ho ld these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of HappinessThe issue of human freedom has been an important subject from time immemorial and hence the presence of the phrase â€Å"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal† in the American constitution. There are several factors that led American leaders among them Thomas Jefferson to include this provision in the declaration for independence since their efforts to win America’s independence from Britain was motivated by a need for governance that respects the rights of the people.There are several factors that led America to fight for its independence but most of the included a need to stop British parliament from imposing its legislative authority over the American people. Most importantly was the act by British parliament to pass a law increasing tax over the American Britons a move that many felt was a violation of their sovereign rights since many felt that America owed its allegiance to he king but was not subject to legislations by the British parliament.Furthermore American leaders during the time preceding the declaration of independence felt that all people have certain natural rights which cannot be taken from them. These rights guarantee people certain rights conferred upon them which cannot be surrendered to the state and which allows men to decide their lives. Natural rights were argued from many schools of thought with religion playing a major part in leading to believe and adoption of the same in the constitution. Furthermore, natural rights could b traced to Britain whereby they were used to challenge the divine powers of kings and therefore remove kings who ruled unjustly.Therefore, the acts of Britain to dictate various laws upon the American public and levy taxes on them were considered to be breach of such rights since natural rights prohibited a party to gain while causing pain, harm or misery to the other. In this regard, the American constitution after independence went ahead to grant American citizens certain rights that could not be surrendered to the state and clarified that any law made in contradiction to these provisions would be void. This philosophy continued to grow and influence American society in years to come and this was evidence with the thirteenth amendment that abolished slavery.The issue of slavery was always a very controversial issue all over the world with many questioning the morality of some forcing others to work for them and be subject to their control. The Amendment was preceded by the emancipation proclamation by Abraham Lincoln during the civil war and was aimed at ruining the economy of those states which were trying to leave the union. As expected, the move won the Lincoln administration support from foreign nation especially the United Kingdom and dim inishing the rebellious state’s chance of recognition.However, the proclamation only freed slaves from Southern sates and it became necessary to enact a law ending slavery in the whole country. In this regard, it became illegal for any person to force any person to involuntary servitude guaranteeing the rights of all citizens to liberty. However, the end of slavery was not the end of problems related to minor groups who were mainly blacks in the American society. They were treated as second rate citizens and they did not have most of the rights enjoyed by the white majority.Though they were no longer slaves they were forced to work under deplorable conditions for their white employers and the same time receive meager earnings as the price of their labor. They were not allowed to vote since they were considered minority citizens and most were even subjected to violence and were not given access to justice to redress these violations of the rights. The American constitution gua rantees that all men are born equal and therefore guaranteed rights that cannot be denied them and this led minority groups to fight against such breach of constitutional guarantees.The situation escalated in the 20th century when segregation became widespread with black citizens not allowed to use white citizen’s facilities. These meant that minority groups were discriminated upon in employment, were not allowed in various establishments, and had separate schools with their white counterparts. This pushed these minority groups deep into poverty, a condition that will continue to be a big factor to the living stands of black people later on in the future.However, the 1900’s were an era of great civil movements that saw the granting of voting rights to all minority groups including women. The subsequent amendment to the constitution wanted to clarify that since the constitution clearly spelt that all people have certain unalienable rights, then any discrimination based on gender or race was contrary to the provisions of the constitution. Therefore, various governments continue to ensure that laws made do not infringe on the laws of individuals with the court reviewing laws and removing those that violate citizen’s rights.On the international arena, the adoption of the bill of rights have helped lead to more rights and freedoms for people all over the world (Vorenburg, 2001). References Catton, B. & McPherson, J. (2004). The Civil War. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cohen, S. (2004). British supporters of the American revolution, 1775-1783. Boydell press. Hudson, P. (1992). The Industrial Revolution. Oxford Publisher. Ward, J. (1962). Andrew Jackson. New York: Oxford Publishers. Vorenberg, M. (2001). Final freedom. New york: Cambridge university press.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Healthcare System in Great Britain - 3168 Words

Health Care System in Great Britain Organization of health care in Great Britain Health care in the United Kingdom is devolved depending states: other states like Scotland and Northern Ireland are separate entities and do not form part of the UK medical healthcare system. The states have their own private and public sectors of health care to the people. Devolution stretches to every activity that is concerned with delivering of health care facilities and personalities required that serve the citizens. The model of offering health care among the citizens of the United Kingdom is different from those of other states like Wales and Scotland. Moreover, the policies and strategies of health care are different between the United Kingdom and other states. Great Britain stands on its own as a separate entity that ensures the citizens of the federal government have accessed equitable health care services. The payments of the health care services offered by the states go all the citizens is catered for by the general taxation body within the federal government. Every state has a private health care centre that is smaller than the public health care sector. The private health care provisions are provided by the private sector through direct funding by the patient or through taxation accruals in cases where the patient suffers complicated cases like AIDS/HIV (Dewar, 2010). The United Kingdom was ranked as the fifth best in the world by the world health organization. ThisShow MoreRelatedHealth Care in Great Britain Essay examples889 Words   |  4 PagesRunning Head: Global Healthcare Healthcare in the United States Vs. Great Britain Tyra Baruti Kaplan University The healthcare system in the United States and Britain are different and many in ways. 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